An independent and sovereign state, the Principality of Monaco borders with the communes of Cap.d'Ail, Beausoleil and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin (from west to east) of the French department of Alpes-Maritimes and with the Mediterranean sea.
Its population of 31,109 is made up chiefly of 7,364 Monegasques, 8,785 French citizens, 5,778 Italians and 2,335 British, according to the census carried out in 2008;
It is 195 hectares (0.73sq.m,), 40 of which have been reclaimed from the sea over the last twenty years. The Principality consists of a narrow seaside strip which is almost vertical at times and reaches 163m above sea-level. Its width varies from 1,050 to 350m and it has a 4,100m-long sea front. The Principality comprises one commune only, Monaco.